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Baculites vertebralis Lamarck 1801 from: Ifrim, C..Stinnesbeck, W..Schafhauser, A.. (2005): Maastrichtian shallow-water ammonites of northeastern Mexico . Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas Vol. 22(1) p. 48-64
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Species Baculites vertebralis Lamarck 1801



Diagnosis / Definition:
Kennedy (1986):
Material. BMNH C70591-C70593 from Valognes (ex J. Sowerby, ex de Gerville Collection); NHMW 7460 from Fresville (? ex de Gerville Collection); MNHG, three unregistered specimens (ex Pictet Collection). Description. All specimens are internal moulds. Medium-sized for genus, straight, slowly expanding, compressed, with whorl breadth to height ratio varying between 0•53 and 0•60. Whorl section oval with dorsum more broadly rounded than venter and sides markedly flattened. Five specimens studied are almost smooth (text-fig. 8A-E) or ornamented by growth striae and feeble riblets (P!' 11, fig. 7; PI. 12, figs. 2 and 5). These are feebly eonvex and transverse on dorsum, sweep back into a marked concavity on dorsolateral area, and are projected strongly forwards on ventrolateral area, meeting line of venter at 30° and crossing venter in narrow convexity. These specimens show feeble longitudinal groove corresponding to position of umbilical lobe. Two MHNG specimens show much stronger ornament (PI. 11, figs. 9-11), with growth striae and riblets, strengthened into concave, crescentic dorsolateral rib. In best-preserved specimen (PI. 11, figs. 9-11) these are disturbed by series ofpathologieal exereseenees, but a rather worn specimen (not figured) shows 3,0-3,5 such ribs in a distance equal to whorl height. Irregular eonstrietions sometimes developed, Suture (text-fig. 7D-F) relatively complex for genus, with deeply incised bifid elements. EIL and L/U tall, L narrow, U relatively broad, U/I squat.
Ward & Kennedy (1993):
Description and discussion. - There are two widespread Baculites in the upper Maastrichtian of Western Europe: B. vertebralis and B. anceps Lamarck, 1822 (for the latter see Howarth, 1965, p. 363, Pl. 4, fig. 4, Pl. 5, figs. 4, 5, Pl. 6, figs. 1-5, text-figs. 2, 3, 5-12; Kennedy, 1987, p. 189, Pl. 20, fig. 2, Pl. 28, figs. 3, 11-13, 19-23, text-fig. 11C, D (with full synonymy)). Baculites vertebralis are typically smooth with an oval to pyriform whorl section. Some may have weak to strong striae, or even constrictions on body chambers; these are markedly concave on the flank, and project forwards to intersect the line of the venter at an angle of 30°. Even rarer are specimens with distant crescentic ribs (Kennedy, 1986c, P1. 11, figs. 6-1 1). In constrast, B. anceps can be easily separated by its tear-shaped section, with acute sharp venter flanked by grooves. But this feature is not preserved in the Biscay material, and only strongly ornamented specimens with closely spaced crescentic flank ribs intersecting the line of a venter at an angle of around 20° can be referred to anceps with confidence. We thus refer to B. vertebralis the smooth, sometimes feebly striate and constricted Baculites that occur throughout the Biscay section, although it is likely that some are smooth variants of B. anceps.
Discussion / Comments:
Kennedy (1986):
Discussion. B. vertebralis is immediatly distinguished frorn the other Calcaire a Baculites species, B. anceps Lamarck, 1822, by the oval rather than tear-shaped cross-section, by which they can be differentiated even as single camerae. The venter of vertebralis is rounded, that of anceps acute and flanked by grooves (PI. 11, figs. 12-14; PI. 12, figs. 7-11), whi1e the growth lines and rib1ets of anceps intersect the 1ine of the venter at a much smaller angle (compare PI. 12, figs. 5 and 7); anceps also has much simpler, squat, little-incised sutura1 elements (compare text-fig. 7A-C and 7n-F). B. faujasi Lamarck, 1822 (p. 647) is an objective synonym, having the same type as B. vertebralis. B. knorrianus Desmarest, 1817 (p. 48, pl, 1, fig. 3) is a further species common1y recorded from the European Maastrichtian (synonymy in Diener 1925, p. 61; see also Birke1und 1979). I interpret it in terms of specimens from Nagorzany, Ga1icia (NHMW 7459a-c and BMNH 74030a-d). This is a very 1arge species, with a whorl height ofup to 80 mm in specimens I have seen. The whorl section is ovoid, with a broadly rounded venter (as in B. vertebralis) but with strong1y convergent flanks and a narrower venter. Ornament is weak to obsolete in most specimens, but some show distinct to strong ventral ribbing and others ribs that extend on to the ventro1atera1 region. The suture is even more deeply and intricately subdivided than in B. vertebralis. Although only a handful of B. vertebralis are known from the Calcaire a Baculites, it is ofinterest to note that individuals are mature at disparate sizes: BMNH C70592 (PI. 12, figs. 1-3) shows approximated sutures at a whorl height of 19•5 mrn whereas one of the MHNG specimens (PI. 11, figs. 6-8) isstill septate at a whorl height of 38•Omm. The sampleis, ofcourse, too small to do anything but suggest the possibility of size dimorphism
Ward & Kennedy (1993):
Occurrence.- In the Biscay sections this taxon is found in Member I (lower Maastrichtian) to midway through Member IV (upper Maastrichtian). Elsewhere, the species is upper Maastrichtian where well dated. It occurs in the Petites-Pyrénées (Haute-Garonne) and the Calcaire a Baculites of the Cotentin Peninsula, Manche, France, in northern Spain, Limburg, the Netherlands, Liege and Limburg Provinces, Belgium, north Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland, the southern (former) USSR, and Tunisia.
Synonym list:
Ifrim et al. (2005):
1801 Baculites vertebralis Lamarck. - Lamarck : p.103 by subsequent designation of Meek (1876,p. 391)
Kennedy (1986):
1742 Spendylolitte Bourguet. - Bourguet : p.74 pl. 49, figs. 313-316
1768 Homaloceratites Hupsch. - Hupsch : p.110 pl. 4, figs. 11, 15, 18, 19 (non binomen)
1799 Corne d'ammon droite Faujas-Saint-Fond. - Faujas-Saint-Fond : p.140 pl. 21, figs. 2 and 3
1801 Baculites vertebralis Lamarck. - Lamarck : p.103
1817 Baculites vertebralis Lamarck. - Desmarest : p.49 pl. 2, figs. 7 and 8
1822 Baculites faujasii Lamarck. - Lamarck : p.647
non 1823 Baculites faujasii Lamarck. - Sowerby : p.186 pl. 592, fig. 1
non 1825 Baculites vertebralis Lamarck. - Blainville : p.380 pl. 12, figs. 1-3
? 1850 Baculites faujasii Lamarck. - Alth : p.208 pl. 10, figs. 33-36
1861 Baculites faujasi Lamarck. - Binkhorst : p.40 pl. 5d, fig. 1 (with extensive synonym)
1871 Baculites vertebralis Lamarck. - Schlueter : 143 (pars) pl.39, figs. 12 and 13, non fig. 11; pl. 40, figs. 4 and 5, non fig. 6
? 1901 Baculites vertebralis Lamarck. - Imkeller : p.54
1902 Baculites vertebralis Lamarck. - Ravn : p.250
1907 Baculites vertebralis Lamarck. - PERVINQUIERE : 92 (pars) non pl. 4, fig. 9
1908 Baculites vertebralis Lamarck. - Nowak : p.346 pl. 14, fig. 8
1925 Baculites vertebralis Lamarck. - Diener : 64 (pars) (with synonym)
1951 Baculites vertebralis Lamarck. - Mikhailov : p.48 pl. 1, figs. 4-6
non 1964 Baculites vertebralis Lamarck. - Giers : p.256 text-figs. 1 and 2
1965 Baculites vertebralis Lamarck. - Howarth : 363 and 368
1979 Baculites vertebralis Lamarck. - BIRKELUND : p.53
1986 Baculites vertebralis Lamarck. - Kennedy : p.54 pl. 11, dfs. 6-11; pl. 12, figs. 1-6; text-figs. 3A-D, 7D-F, 8
Ward & Kennedy (1993):
1801 Baculites vertebralis Lamarck. - Lamarck : p.103
1986 Baculites vertebralis Lamarck. - Kennedy : p.1012 pl. 1; fig. 8, 9
1986 Baculites vertebralis Lamarck. - Kennedy : p.57 pl. 11, fig. 6-11; pl. 12, fig. 1-6; text-fig. 3A-D, 7D-F, 8
1987 Baculites vertebralis Lamarck. - Kennedy : p.187 pl. 19, 14.7-10; pl. 20, fig. 3-5; pl. 28, fig. 2, 7-10, 14-16; pl. 29, fig. 1-15; pl. 30, fig. 1-9; text-fig. 11A, B, 12 (with full synonymy)
1993 Baculites cf. vertebralis Lamarck. - Ward & Kennedy : p.50 fig. 43.5-43.7, 43.14, 43.15
Stratigraphy - relative ages:
upper Maastrichtian: Kennedy (1986)
upper Maastrichtian - lower Maastrichtian: Ward & Kennedy (1993)
References:

Bourguet,L.. (1742):
Tratte des petrifacions. XVI p. 163-90 pp.

Hupsch,J.W.C.A.F.. (1768):
Neue in der Naturgeschichte des Niederdeutschlands gemachte Entdeckungen einiger selten und wenig bekannten versteinerten Schalthiere. p. 159

Faujas-Saint-Fond,B.. (1799):
Histoire naturelle de la montagne de Saint-Pierre de Maestricht . p. 263 pp.

Lamarck,d.J.B.P.A.M.. (1801):
Système des Animaux sans Vertebrés. p. 432

Desmarest,A.G.. (1817):
Memoire sur deux genres de coquilles fossiles cloisonnees et a siphon . J. Phys. Chim. Hist. nat. Vol. 85 p. 42-51

Lamarck,J.P.B.A.D.M.D.. (1822):
Histoire naturelle des Animaux sans vertebres. Vol. 7 p. 711 pp.

Sowerby,J.d.C.. (1823):
1823-1846. The mineral conchology of Great Britain (continued). p. 4, pis. 384-407

Blainville,D.H.M.D.. (1825):
1825-1827. Manuel de malacologie et de conchyliologie. p. 751pp

Alth,A.. (1850):
Geognostisch palaeontologische Beschreibung der naechsten Umgebung von Lemburg . Haidingers naturwiss. ahb. Vol. 3 p. 171-284

Binkhorst,J.T.. (1861):
Monographie des gastropodes et des céphalopodes de la Craie Supérieure du Limburg.
In: Maastricht and Muller Frères Eds: Muquardt, G.. p. 17,83,44

Schlueter,C.. (1871):
1871-1876. Cephalopoden der oberen deutschen Kreide . Palaeontographica21 & 24 p. 1-120, 1-144

Imkeller,H.. (1901):
Die Kreidebildungen und ihre Fauna am Stallauer Eck und Enzenauer Kopf bei Tölz . Palaeontographica Vol. 48 p. 1-64

Ravn,J.P.J.. (1902):
Molluskerne i Danmarks Kridtafiejringer. II. Scaphopoder, Gastropoder og Cephalopoder. . K. dansk. Vidensk. Selsk. Skr. 6. Rk., nat. og. mat. Afd. Vol. 11 p. 205-270

PERVINQUIERE,L.. (1907):
Etudes de paleontologie tunisienne I: Cephalopodes des terrains secondaires.
In: Carte Geologique de Tunisie p. 438 pp

Nowak,K.. (1908):
Untersuchungen über Cephalopoden der oberen Kreide in Polen. I. Teil. Genus Baculites Lam . Bull. int. Acad. Sci. Lett. Cracovie, Cl. Sci. math. nat. p. 326-353

Diener,C.. (1925):
Ammonoidea neocretacea . Fossilium Cat, (1: Animalia) Vol. 29 p. 244 pp.

Mikhailov,N.P.. (1951):
[Upper Cretaceous ammonites from the southern part of european Russia and their importance for zonal stratigraphy (Campanian, Maastrichtian).] [In Russian.] . Trudy Inst. geol. Nauk Mosk.129 (Geol. ser. 50) p. 143 pp.

Giers,R.. (1964):
Die Grossfauna der Mukronatenkreide (unteres Obercampan) im östlichen Münsterland . Fortsehr. Geol. Rheinld Westf. Vol. 7 p. 213-294

Howarth,M.K.. (1965):
Cretaceous ammonites and nautiloids from Angola . Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Geol.) Vol. 10 p. 335-415

BIRKELUND,T.. (1979):
The last Maastrichian ammonites.
In: Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary, The Maastrichtian and Danian of Denmark Eds: Events Symposium, 1.. p. 210 pp.

Kennedy,W.J.. (1986):
Upper Campanian and Maastrichtian ammonites from the Petites-Pyrénées, southern France . Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae Vol. 79 p. 1001-1037

Kennedy,W.J.. (1986):
The ammonite fauna of the Calcaire à Baculites (Upper Maastrichtian) of the Cotentin Peninsula (Manche, France) . Palaeontology Vol. 29(1) p. 25-83

Kennedy,W.J.. (1987):
The ammonite faunas of the type Maastrichtian, with a revision of Ammonites colligatus Binkhorst, 1861 . Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre Vol. 56 p. 151-267

Ward,P.D.. and Kennedy,W.J.. (1993):
Maastrichtian Ammonites from the Biscay Region (France, Spain) . Memoir (The Paleontological Society), Journal of Paleontology34 (Supplement to Vol. 67)(5) p. 1-58

Ifrim,C..; Stinnesbeck,W.. and Schafhauser,A.. (2005):
Maastrichtian shallow-water ammonites of northeastern Mexico . Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas Vol. 22(1) p. 48-64

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