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Gaudryceras kayei Forbes 1846 from: Ifrim, C..Stinnesbeck, W..López-Oliva, J.G.. (2004): Maastrichtian cephalopods from Cerralvo, north-eastern Mexico . Palaeontology Vol. 47(6) p. 1575–1627
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Species Gaudryceras kayei Forbes 1846

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[1] text-fig. 3n-l Ifrim et al. (2004) [2] text-fig. 5d Ifrim et al. (2004) [3] text-fig. 6a-c, h Ifrim et al. (2004)

Alternative name:
Diagnosis / Definition:
Ifrim et al. (2004):
Description: The earliest growth stages are characterized by a low expansion rate and trapezoid whorl section, similar to other gaudryceratids (see below). Ornament typical of larger individuals is already exposed. At a diameter of c. 5 mm the whorl seetion becomes gradually rounded, but the expansion rate remains unchanged. At this stage whorls are serpenticone. With increasing diameter the whorls become less evolute. Now the whorl seetion is slightly broadened, rounded to rectangular. Maximum whorl breadth is below the middle flank. The large flat umbilicus displays a low, rounded, umbilical wall that grades into broadly rounded flanks. The ventrolateral shoulders are rounded, but the venter is broad and rather flattened. From a shell diameter of 25 mm onwards whorls increase gradually in height, shell expansion rate increases, and U/D decreases. Ornament consists of fine, dense lirae that are strongly projected on the inner flank and curve slightly backwards on the outer flank. Internal moulds are smooth except for three to four constrictions per whorl. The suture line exposes a lanceolate external saddle that is little subdivided. It is extended at larger growth stages. The first lateral saddle (EIL) is large, strongly subdivided, asymmetrically bifid, while the secondary lateral saddle (LlU2) is srnaller, less complex and less irregularly bifid. The ventral lobe (E) and the trifid lateral lobe (L) are similar in depth. The first of 3-5 umbilicallobes is large and trifid and located on the retracted sutural lobe. During growth stages documented (maximum D = 38 mm) the umbilical lobes increase in number from three to five within the growth stages documented while the grade of incision of the suture line increases strongly.
FATMI & Kennedy (1999):
Description.-GSC 1037 is fragmentary body chamber originally extending to at least 1.25 whorls; maximum preserved diameter 55 rum. Coiling evolute, with U estimated at 47-50 percent of diameter; 70 percent of previous whorl covered. Broad umbilicus shallow, umbilical wall feebly convex, outward-inclined, umbilical shoulder narrowly rounded, whorl section depressed reniform, whorl breadth to height ratio 1.36, greatest breadth at umbilical shoulder. Flanks flattened, convergent; ventrolateral shoulders and venter broadly rounded. Partially exfoliated replaced shell material on inner flank and umbilical shoulder of one flank finely lirate. Remainder of mould ornamented by delicate growth lirae and striae, convex across umbilical shoulder and inner flank, prorsiradiate flexed back and concave on outer flank, projected forwards on ventrolateral shoulder, broadly convex on venter. Strong, narrow, deep constrictions, three on last half whorl, parallel growth lines on internal mold. Sutures not seen. Types.-Lectotype, by the subsequent designation of Matsumoto and Yoshida, 1979, p. 70, is BMNH C51050, the original of Forbes, 1846, pl. 8, fig. 3; paralectotypes are BMNH C51049, the original of Kossmat, 1895, pl. 17(3), fig. 2; C41501, C51051-51053.
Ward & Kennedy (1993):
Description. - Coiling very evolute, serpenticone, with U up to 60 percent approximately of diameter; whorls expand very slowly. Best preserved specimen shows ornament of thin wiry lirae convex on umbilical wall and shoulder, and straight and prorsiradiate on inner to mid-flank. No collars, and only traces of constrictions.
Discussion / Comments:
Ifrim et al. (2004):
Remarks: This species is characterized by a very low expansion rate. The trapezoid whorl section of the smallest juvenile growth stages (D = 7·2 mm) corresponds to that of the other Cerralvo gaudryceratids. At slightly larger diameters (D> 8 mm) the whorl seetion is more rounded than in Zelandites varuna, and its grade of sutural incision is slightly lower. The typical ornament of the species is developed in very early stages. The G. kayei juvenile growth stage resembles Anagaudryceras politissimum but is distinguished by stronger ornament and the higher number of whorls at similar diameters. Occurrence: The species is known from Santonian-Maastrichtian strata, and has been described from South Africa (Woods 1906; Kennedy and K1inger 1979), Tunisia (Pervinquiere 1907), the Biscay region (Ward and Kennedy 1993), Pakistan (Fatmi and Kennedy 1999), southern India (Kennedy and Henderson 1992b), western Austra1ia (Henderson and McNamara 1985), Chile (Stinnesbeck 1986), Ca1ifornia (Matsumoto 1959b), and Madagascar (Collignon 1956), among other loca1ities. The record of Böse (1928) from the Santonian of Mexico is doubtful. The specimens are reported from the 'Tay1or mar1s ... near Vallecillo, Nuevo Leon, two mi1es from town at old shaft on the road to Tortillas' (p. 34). We have been to Vallecillo (Text-fig. 1) and searched for the locality described by Böse. The road mentioned by Böse is now Mexican Highway 85. No old mine shaft is disp1ayed in the rnaps, and rocks in the area to the north and east of Vallecillo are cong1omerates. No rocks that wou1d correspond to the 'Tay1or marls' are known to occur close to the village, neither in litho1ogy nor in age, and it is thus high1y unlike1y that the specimens originated from the area close to Vallecillo. Besides, in Texas, the Taylor Group is interpreted to be Campanian in ag, and its Mar1brook Marl member is Upper Campanian (see Cobban et al. 1992; Cobban and Kennedy 1993b).
FATMI & Kennedy (1999):
Discussion. -Coiling, relative proportions, and form of constrictions show this specimen to be a Gaudryceras kayei. See Henderson and McNamara (1985) and Kennedy and Henderson (1992a) for reviews of this species.
Ward & Kennedy (1993):
Type.- Lectotype, designated by Kennedy and Klinger, 1979, p. 162, is BMNH C5 1050, the original of Forbes, 1846, Pl. 8, fig. 3, from the Valudavur Group of Pondicherry, south India. There are numerous paralectotypes (see Figure 18.1 1, 18.12, 18.15). Discussion. - Part of the type series is shown in Figure 18.11, 18.12, 18.15 for comparison with the Biscay material. Evolute serpenticone coiling, relatively coarse lirae, and absence of collars show these specimens to be Gaudryceras kayei, and distinguish them from other gaudryceratids in the Biscay faunas. We agree with Henderson and McNamara (1985, p. 48) that kayei is better referred to Gaudryceras than Vertebrites. Occurrence.- In the Biscay region only a single specimen can be definitely assigned to this species, although many fragmentary specimens have been observed, which may also turn out to be conspecific. The single specimen is from near the base of Member V (upper Maastrichtian) at Zumaya. The species ranges from Santonian to upper Maastrichtian elsewhere. There are records from Tunisia, Zululand, and Pondoland, South Africa, Madagascar, south India, Japan, western Australia, California, Texas, Chile, and the Antarctic Peninsula.
Synonym list:
Ifrim et al. (2004):
1846 Ammonites kayei Forbes. - Forbes : p.101 pl. 8, fig. 3
1871 Lytoceras kayei Forbes. - GRIESBACH : p.63
1906 Gaudryceras kayei Forbes. - WOODS : p.335 pl. 41, fig. 8; pl. 42, fig. 1
1971 Vertebrites kayei Forbes. - COLLIGNON : p.2 pl. 640, fig. 2362
1979 Vertebrites kayei Forbes. - Kennedy & KLINGER : p.160 fig.5; pl. 14, fig. 2 (with full synonymy)
1985 Gaudryceras kayei Forbes. - Henderson & McNamara : p.46 pl. 1, figs. 9-10; text-fig. 4d
1986 Gaudryceras (Vertebrites) kayei Forbes. - Stinnesbeck : p.198 pl. 8, figs. 2-3; text-fig. 21
1992 Gaudryceras kayei Forbes. - Kennedy & Henderson : p.402 pl. 5, figs. 19-20, 24, 28-41; text-fig. 3d
1993 Gaudryceras kayei Forbes. - Ward & Kennedy : p.17 text-figs. 17.11, 18.11-12, 18.15
1999 Gaudryceras kayei Forbes. - FATMI & Kennedy : p.644 figs. 5.1, 5.2, 16.2
2004 Gaudryceras kayei Forbes. - Ifrim et al. : 7, 14, 17 text-figs. 3n-l, 5d, 6a-c,h
FATMI & Kennedy (1999):
1846 Ammonites kayei Forbes. - Forbes : p.101 pl. 8, fig. 3
1979 Vertebrites kayei Forbes. - Kennedy & KLINGER : p.160 pl. 14, fig. @, text-fig. 5 (with full synonymy)
1992 Gaudryceras kayei Forbes. - Kennedy & Henderson : p.402 pl. 5, figs. 19-20, 24, 28-41; text-fig. 3d (with additional synonymy)
1993 Gaudryceras kayei Forbes. - Ward & Kennedy : p.17 figs. 17.11, 18.11, 18.12, 19.15
1999 Gaudryceras kayei Forbes. - FATMI & Kennedy : figs. 5.1, 5.2, 16.2
Ward & Kennedy (1993):
1846 Ammonites kayei Forbes. - Forbes : p.101 pl. 8; fig. 3
1979 Vertebrites kayei Forbes. - Kennedy & KLINGER : p.160 pl. 14, fig. 2; text-fig. 5 (with full synonymy)
1985 Gaudryceras kayei Forbes. - Henderson & McNamara : p.46 pl. 1, fig. 13, 14; pl. 2, fig. 5, 6, 9, 10; text-fig. 4b, c
1986 Gaudryceras (Vertebrites) kayei Forbes. - Stinnesbeck : p.189 pl. 8, fig. 2, 3; text-fig. 21
1993 Gaudryceras kayei Forbes. - Ward & Kennedy : p. 18, 19 fig. 17.11, 18.11, 18.12, 18.15
Stratigraphy - relative ages:
Maastrichtian - Santonian: Ifrim et al. (2004)
upper Maastrichtian - upper Maastrichtian: Ward & Kennedy (1993)
upper Maastrichtian: FATMI & Kennedy (1999)
References:

Forbes,E.. (1846):
Report on the Cretaceous fossil invertebrates from southern India, collected by Mr. Kaye and Mr. Cunliffe . Transactions of the Geological Society of London Vol. 2(7) p. 97–174

GRIESBACH,C.L.. (1871):
On the geology of Natal in South Africa . Quarterly Journal ofthe Geological Society of London Vol. 27 p. 53-72

WOODS,H.. (1906):
The Cretaceous fauna of Pondoland . Annals of the South African Museum Vol. 4 p. 275-350

COLLIGNON,M.. (1971):
Atlas des fossiles caracteristiques de Madagascar (Ammonites)(Maestrichtian). Vol. 17 p. 82

Kennedy,W.J.. and KLINGER,H.C.. (1979):
Cretaceous faunas from Zululand and Natal, South Africa. The ammonite family Gaudryceratidae. . Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History ) Geology Vol. 31 p. 121-173

Henderson,R.A.. and McNamara,K.J.. (1985):
Maastrichtian non-heteromorph ammonites from the Miria Formation, Western Australia . Palaeontology Vol. 28 p. 35-88

Stinnesbeck,W.. (1986):
Zu den faunistischen und palökologischen Verhältnissen in der Quriquina Formation (Maastrichtium)Zentral-Chiles . Palaeontographica A194((4-6)) p. 99-237

Kennedy,W.J.. and Henderson,R.A.. (1992):
Non-heteromorph ammonites from the Upper Maastrichtian of Pondicherry, south India . Palaeontology Vol. 35 p. 381-442

Ward,P.D.. and Kennedy,W.J.. (1993):
Maastrichtian Ammonites from the Biscay Region (France, Spain) . Memoir (The Paleontological Society), Journal of Paleontology34 (Supplement to Vol. 67)(5) p. 1-58

Ward,P.D.. and Kennedy,W.J.. (1993):
Maastrichtian ammonites from the Biscay Region . Journal of Paleontology Vol. 67(5 II) p. 1-58

FATMI,A.N.. and Kennedy,W.J.. (1999):
Maastrichtian ammonites from Balochistan, Pakistan. . Journal of Paleontology Vol. 73(4) p. 641-662

Ifrim,C..; Stinnesbeck,W.. and López-Oliva,J.G.. (2004):
Maastrichtian cephalopods from Cerralvo, north-eastern Mexico . Palaeontology Vol. 47(6) p. 1575–1627

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