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Pachydiscus (Pachydiscus) gollevillensis d'Orbigny 1850 from: Ward, P.D..Kennedy, W.J.. (1993): Maastrichtian Ammonites from the Biscay Region (France, Spain) . Memoir (The Paleontological Society), Journal of Paleontology34 (Supplement to Vol. 67)(5) p. 1-58
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Species Pachydiscus (Pachydiscus) gollevillensis d'Orbigny 1850

Alternative name:
Diagnosis / Definition:
Cobban & Kennedy (1995):
DESCRIPTION.- USNM 463107, a phosphatic internal mold of a phragmocone, has maximum preserved whorl height of 23 mm. Coiling appears to have been moderately involute, with small, shallow umbilicus; umbilical wall low and rounded. Whorl breadth to height ratio 0.7, with greatest breadth just outside umbilical shoulder. Inner flanks broadly rounded, mid- to outer flanks flattened and convergent, venter very broadly rounded. Four weak prorsiradiate bullae perched on umbilical shoulder give rise to low, weak, prorsiradiate ribs that efface across middle of flanks. In places, ribs appear to bifurcate. Intercalated ribs arise on outer flank, where they are very weak; they strengthen markedly over ventrolateral shoulder before weakening somewhat at midventer and becoming interrupted by marked siphuncular groove. Seventeen ventral ribs correspond to four bullae. Suture complex and typical for genus.
Kennedy (1986):
Types. This is a Prodrome species, introduced by d'Orbigny in 1850 as nomen novum for Ammonites lewesiensis d'Orbigny (not Mantell): '*17. Gollevillensis, d'Orb. 1847. A. lewesiensis, d'Orb., 1842. Paleout. franc., Terr. cret., pI. 101 et 102, fig. 1 (non Sowerby). France, Golleville, Fresville (Manche)' (d'Orbigny 1850, p. 212). In Paleontologie Francalse d'Orbigny (1841, p. 336, pI. 101; pl. 102, figs. 1 and 2) notes that de Gerville had found the species at Golleville and Fresville. The de Gerville Collection, formerly at Caen, was destroyed during the Second World War, while there are no specimens from either of the above localities listed in the catalogue of the d'Orbigny Collection under A. gollevillensis or lewesiensis. De Gerville sent ammonites from the Calcaire a Baculites to several of his contemporaries; there are, for instance, specimens labelled in his distinctive style in the Museum für Natürkunde, Berlin, Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna, and the British Museum (Natural History). In the case of material sent to James Sowerby, one was described as A. constrictus in 1817, so dating the transaction some twenty-four years earlier at minimum than publication of Paleontologie Francalse and rendering it unlikely (but not impossible) that the associated Pachydiscus in Sowerby's Collection were studied by d'Orbigny and are thus surviving syntypes. Because d'Orbigny's protographs (reproduced here as text-fig. 2) represent at least two species, and because the original of his plate 101 is sufficiently idealized to be interpretable as either P. gollevillensis of authors or P. valognensis (Spath, 1922) for those who believe these species to be distinct, neotype designation is desirable. BMNH C38179 (PI. 1, figs. 1-3) is so designated in the interest of nornen¬clatural stability; the specimen being from Fresville and one of the specimens sent to James Sowerby by de Gerville. Material. BMNH 50135 from Valognes, the holotype by monotypy of Parapachydiscus valognensis Spath, 1922a (PI. 2, figs. 1-3); BMNH C38178 and C70651 (internal and external moulds) from Fresville (ex J. Sowerby, ex de Gerville Collection); MNHP unreg. (de Vibraye Collection) from Fresville; SP 19 from Golleville (the original of Seunes 1891, pI. 14 (5), fig. 3; the repository given by Seunes is an error); EMP unreg., two specimens from Fresville or Valognes (the originals ofSeunes 1891, pI. 14 (5), figs. 1 and 2; the repository given by Seunes is an error); SP unreg. from Fresville (the original of de Grossouvre 1894, pI. 31, fig. 9); FSR 12, a juvenil. from Fresville (Seunes Collection); MNHH 5856, from Port Filiolet, Picauville; MHNG, two unreg. specimens (ex Pictet Collection) from Fresville; MNB no, Hi, from Valognes (ex de Gerville Collection). Description. All specimens are internal moulds of phragmocones. No body-chambers known. Coiling moderately involute, with small, shallow umbilicus comprising around 25 % of diameter. Umbilical walllow and rounded, whorl section compressed (whorl breadth to height ratio ranges from 0•67 to 0,75) with greatest breadth weil below mid-fiank (text-fig. 3p, R). Inner fianks broadly rounded, outer fianks fiattened and convergent, ventrolateral shoulders broadly rounded, venter flattened. Shell smooth to a diameter of 16 mm (PI. 5, figs. 20 and 21; PI. 11, fig. 1); first ornament to appear is small umbilical bullae (PI. 5, fig. 13; PI. 11, figs. 2 and 3), which give rise to feeble flexuous prorsiradiate ribs and striae that generally efface on outer flank, although in some specimens there are feeble ribs and depressions on venter (PI. 11, fig. 2). This stage persists to a diameter of 40 mm (PI. 5, figs. 13 and 22; PI. 11, figs. 4 and 5), beyond which strong ventral ribs appear. From this point to maturity (Pis. 1-3; PI. 4, figs. 4-6) there are nine to eleven umbilical bullae per whorl. These arise as low swellings on umbilical wall, strengthen over the shoulder, and are elongate, crescentic, and ofvariable strength within (e.g. PI. 3, fig. 2) and between individuals (compare PI. 1 and PI. 3, figs. 1-3). Where strongly developed they extend as ribs across inner flank before dec1ining (PI. 3, fig. 2); in some cases they appear to subdivide across outer flank (pI. 3, fig. 4) with secondary ribs intercalated (pI. 3, figs. 2 and 4). In other specimens (PI. I, fig. 2; PI. 2, fig. 2; PI. 4, fig. 5) ornament is virtually effaced at mid-flank. In all specimens, ribs strengthen on ventrolateral shoulder, where they are distinctly prorsiradiate, blunt, and rounded, and separated by slightly wider interspaces. All ribs pass straight across venter, and are interrupted by narrow groove marking siphonalline. There are approximately eighty ventral ribs corresponding to the nine to eleven umbilical bullae. Suture line deeply and intricately subdivided, with symmetrically bifid saddles and markedly retracted umbilical lobe (text-fig. 4c).
Ward & Kennedy (1993):
Description. - Biscay specimens are up to 150 mm diameter. Coiling moderately involute, with small shallow umbilicus comprising around 25 percent ofdiameter. Low umbilical wall seems to have been flattened, with narrowly rounded umbilical shoulder; whorl section cannot be reconstructed. Juveniles smooth to around 16 mm. First ornament to appear is small umbilical bullae, followed by feeble ventral ribs. Strong ventral ribs appear at about 40 mm diameter. Generally 9-1 1 umbilical bullae per whorl. These arise on umbilical wall and strengthen markedly over umbilical shoulder, concave and prorsiradiate on inner flank, declining around mid-flank, where some appear to subdivide, although most efface. Strong ribs reappear on ventrolateral shoulder and strengthen across venter, which they cross transversely and are coarse, blunt and rounded, numbering around 80 per whorl.
Discussion / Comments:
Cobban & Kennedy (1995):
MATERIAL.- Two specimens, USNM 463 106, 463 107. DISCUSSION.- The fragmentary nature of this specimen precludes confident assignation to P. (P.) gollevillensis (see revision in Kennedy, 1986d), but the high number of intercalated ribs versus primary ribs, plus effacement of ornament at mid-flank strongly suggest it belongs to this upper Maastrichtian species. A second worn fragment, USNM 463106 may also belong here; it has a maximum preserved whorl height of 33.5 mm, a whorl breadth to height ratio of 0.72, distant umbilical bullae, and ribs effaced at mid-flank. Presence of umbilical bullae, plus the numerous short ribs on the outer flank and venter separate the present material from other Pachydiscus (Pachydiscus) in the Prairie Bluff Chalk. OCCURRENCE.- Prairie Bluff Chalk at localities 14 and 23.
Kennedy (1986):
Discussion. The neotype is a specimen according weIl with the figures of Seunes (1891) and de Grossouvre (1894). It is generally comparable with d'Orbigny's pl. 101, which most authors have used as a basis for the species, whereas d'Orbigny's pI. 102, figs. land 2 are obviously a juvenile Pachydiscus jacquoti Seunes, 1890a. P. valognensis (Spath, 1922a), the holotype of which is figured for the first time as Plate 2, is inseparable from P. gollevillensis. P. neubergicus nowaki Mikhailov, 1951 (p. 65) is based on the original ofN owak (1913, p. 354, pl. 41, fig. 13); it has a somewhat coarser ventral ornament, but I can see no criteria on which to separate it specifically from P. gollevillensis. Blaszkiewicz (1980, p. 45, pI. 35, figs. 1-3,9) differentiates it from P. gollevillensis sensu stricto on the basis of the more numerous umbilical bullae, wider umbilicus, and more conspicuously reduced costulation in the central parts of the sides. The original ofhis pI. 35, figs. land 9 bearslittle resemblance to the gollevillensis group, however. P. g. armenicus Atabekian and Akopian, 1969 (p. 8, pI. I, fig. 2; pl. 3, figs. land 2) from the Maastrichtian of Armenia has many more umbilical bullae (sixteen to twenty) than the present material (nine to eleven) and sixty-two to seventy-three ventral ribs. It seems distinct enough from the material described here. P. gollevillensis is a elose ally and, I believe, a descendant ofthe older P. neubergicus (Hauer, 1858) (p. 12 (pars), pl. 2 (3), figs. 1-3 only), the lectotype of which is illustrated in Plate 4, fig. 3. This species has 50% more umbilical bullae than P. gollevillensis, primary ribs that extend across the flank and bi- or trifurcate on the ventrolateral shoulder, far fewer ventral ribs, and a wider umbilicus. Evolution thus involved a reduction in the number of umbilical bullae, effacement of lateral ornament, and an increase in number and decrease in strength of ventral ribs. It is thus perfectly possible that P. g. armenicus may be an intermediate stage in this sequence which has attained the finer ventral ornament of gollevillensis while retaining the style of umbilical ribbing of neubergicus. Occurrence. Calcaire a Baculites, Upper Maastrichtian of Fresville, Golleville, 'Valognes' and Port Filiolet, Picauville, Manche, France; Hommes Morts, Lleida, Spain; Poland, north Germany, Austria, Armenian SSR, northern Caucasus, Crimea, Bulgaria, the Bithynian Peninsula, Turkey, and Madagascar.
Ward & Kennedy (1993):
Type.- Neotype, designated by Kennedy, 1986c, p. 29, is BMNH C38 179, from the upper Maastrichtian Calcaire a Baculites of Fresville, Manche, France. Discussion.- An undeformed topotype is shown in Figure 32.1-32.3 for comparison with the crushed Biscay material. Pachydiscus valognensis (Spath, 1922) is a synonym of P. (P.) gollevillensis; the holotype was illustrated by Kennedy (1 986c, Pl. 2). Pachydiscus (P.) neubergicus nowaki Mikhailov, 1951 (p. 65), based on the original of Nowak (19 13, p. 354, Pl. 41, fig. 13) is also regarded as a synonym, in spite of the views of Blaszkiewicz (1980, p. 45). Pachydiscus (P.) gollevillensis armenicus Atabekian and Akopian, 1969 (p. 8, Pl. 1, fig. 2, Pl. 3, figs. 1, 2; see Figure 29.1-29.6) is here afforded full specific status. It has many more umbilical bullae (16-20 vs. 9-1 I) and fewer ventral ribs (62-73 vs. 80). Equally distinctive is P. (P.) neubergicus neubergicus (Hauer, 1858), described above. It has 14-1 7 umbilical bullae, primary ribs that extend across the flanks and bi- or trifurcate, far fewer ventral ribs (48-60 vs. 80), and a wider umbilicus. Pachydiscus (P.) jacquoti jacquoti Seunes, 1890a, also described above, is evolute, with few, distant ribs. Occurrence.- In the Biscay sections this taxon ranges from the upper half of Member I (lower Maastrichtian) to the top of Member IV (upper Maastrichtian). Where well dated elsewhere, the species is restricted to the upper Maastrichtian, with records from the Calcaire a Baculites of the Cotentin Peninsula, Manche, France, Hommes Morts, Lleida, Spain, Kunrade and Geulhem, Limburg, the Netherlands, Poland, north Germany, Austria, the Armenian SSR, northern Caucasus, Crimea, Bulgaria, Bithynian Peninsula, Turkey, and Madagascar.

 Ordo Ammonoidea
  Subordo Ammonitina
   Superfamilia Desmocerataceae
    Familia Pachydiscidae
     Genus Pachydiscus
      Subgenus Pachydiscus
       Species Pachydiscus (Pachydiscus) gollevillensis

  Ordo Ammonoidea
   Subordo Ammonitina
    Superfamilia Desmocerataceae
     Familia Pachydiscidae
      Genus Pachydiscus
       Species Pachydiscus (Pachydiscus) gollevillensis

  Ordo Ammonoidea
   Subordo Lytoceratina
    Superfamilia Tetragonitaceae
     Familia Pachydiscidae
      Genus Pachydiscus
       Subgenus Pachydiscus
        Species Pachydiscus (Pachydiscus) gollevillensis
Synonym list:
Cobban & Kennedy (1995):
p 1850 Ammonites gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - d'Orbigny : p.212
1980 Pachydiscus (Pachydiscus) gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Thomel : p.127 fig. 253
1986 Pachydiscus (Pachydiscus) gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Kennedy : p.28 pls. 1-3; pl. 4, fig. 4-6; pl. 5, fig. 12-14, 20-24; pl. 11, fig. 1-5; text-fig. 2, 3p, r, 4c [with full synonymy]
1986 Pachydiscus (Pachydiscus) gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Kennedy : fig. 8b,c
1986 Pachydiscus (Pachydiscus) gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Kennedy : p.168 pl. 12, fig. 4, 5; pl. 15, fig. 7-11, 14, 15; pl. 22, fig. 1-5; text-fig. 7a, c
1993 Pachydiscus (Pachydiscus) gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Ward & Kennedy : p.34 fig. 29.6, 31.1, 31.5, 32.1-32.3,33
1995 Pachydiscus (Pachydiscus) cf. gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Cobban & Kennedy : p. 7, 8, 10 fig. 4.8, 4.9, 5.4, 7.2
Kennedy (1986):
1840 Ammonites lewesiensis Mantell. - Orbigny : p.336 pl. 101, figs. 1-3 non pl. 102, figs. 1 and 2
1850 Ammonites gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Orbigny : p.212
1853 Ammonites gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Sharpe (non d'Orbigny, 1850) : p.48 pl. 17, fig. 2 (= Pachydiscus sharpei Spath)
1861 Ammonites exiles Binkhorst. - Binkhorst : p.31 pl. 6, fig. 4
1891 Pachydiscus gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Seunes : p.10 pl. 14 (5), figs. 1-3
1894 Pachydiscus gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Grossouvre : p.214 pl. 29, fig. 4; pl. 31, fig. 9
1897 Pachydiscus gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Kossmat (non d'Orbigny, 1850) : p.82 pl. 6, fig. 6 (=Pachydiscus compressus Spath)
1898 Pachydiscus gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Kossmat (non d'Orbigny, 1850) : 97 (162) pl. 15 (21), fig. 1 (=Pachydiscus compressus Spath)
1907 Pachydiscus gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Wisniowski : p.196
1908 Pachydiscus gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Grossouvre : p.32 pl. 9, figs. 1, 2
1909 Pachydiscus sp. ex gr. aff. gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Kilian & Reboul (non d'Orbigny, 1850) : p.43 pl. 19, fig. 3; pl. 20, fig. 1
1913 Pachydiscus sp. egertoni Forbes & Nowak. - Nowak : p.354 pl. 41, fig. 13; pl. 43, fig. 28; pl. 44, fig. 38
1922 Pachydiscus (Pachydiscus) gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Cottreau : 181 (73) pl. 17 (9), fig. 1
1922 Parapachydiscus valognensis Spath. - Spath : p.122
1927 Pachydiscus egertoni var. gollevillensis d'Orb & Böhm. - Boehm : 217 (pars) non pl. 13, fig. 2
1929 Pachydiscus cf. gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Barrabe : p.181 pl. 22 (8), fig. 14
1930 Pachydiscus gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Besairie : p.566 pl. 26, fig. 4
1931 Pachydiscus gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Basse : p.31 pl. 4, fig. 1; pl. 11, fig. 4
? 1938 Parapachydiscus n sp. aff. chrishna gollevillensis d'Orbigny & Collignon. - COLLIGNON : 68 (18) pl. 1, fig. 6
1940 Pachydiscus aff. gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Spath (non d'Orbigny, 1850) : p.45 pl. 2, fig. 1
1951 Pachydiscus neubergicus var. nowaki Mikhailov. - Mikhailov : p.65 var. nov.
1959 Pachydiscus gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Naidin & Shimanskij : p.187 pl. 11, figs. 1-3
p 1963 Pachydiscus (Pachydiscus) n sp. cf. gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Young (non d'Orbigny, 1850) : p.56 pl. 8, fig. 5; pl. 17, fig. 5; text-fig. 10c, o
1963 Pachydiscus (Pachydiscus) n sp. cf. gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Young (non d'Orbigny, 1850) : p.56 pl. 13, figs. 1,2,5; pl. 14, fig. 4; pl. 17, figs. 1 and 8; text-fig. 10d,g
1963 Pachydiscus (Pachydiscus) n sp. cf. gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Young (non d'Orbigny, 1850) : p.57 pl. 14, figs. 2 and 3; text-figs. 7n, 8h
1964 Pachydiscus gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Tsankov : p.160 pl. 6, fig.2; pl. 7, fig.4; pl. 9, fig. 1
1969 Pachydiscus gollevillensis gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - ATABEKIAN & AKOPIAN : p.4 pl. 1, fig. 1
1969 Pachydiscus gollevillensis armenicus Atabekian & Akopian. - ATABEKIAN & AKOPIAN (non Atabekian & Akopian, 1969) : p.8 pl. 1, fig.2; pl. 3, figs. 1,2
1971 Pachydiscus gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - COLLIGNON : p.24 pl. 649, figs. 2402 and 2403; pl. 650, figs. 2404-2406
1980 Pachydiscus gollevillensis nowaki Michailov & Blaszkiewicz. - BLASZKIEWICZ : 45 (pars) pl. 35, figs. 2 and 3 only
1982 Pachydiscus (Pachydiscus) gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Martinez : p.82 pl. 7, fig. 1
1982 Pachydiscus gollevillensis gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Tsankov : p.36 pl. 15, fig. 2, ?figs. 1 and 3; pl. 16, fig. 2
1982 Pachydiscus gollevillensis armenicus Atabekian & Akopian. - Tsankov (non Atabekian & Akopian, 1969) : p.37 pl. 16, figs. 3 and 4
1986 Pachydiscus (Pachydiscus) gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Kennedy : 28 pp. Plates 1-3; Plate 4, figs. 4-6; Plate 5, figs. 12-14,20-24; Plate 11, figs. 1-5; text-figs. 2, 3p, R, 4t
Ward & Kennedy (1993):
p 1850 Ammonites gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - d'Orbigny : p.212
1986 Pachydiscus (Pachydiscus) gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Kennedy : p.28 pls. 1-3; pl. 4, fig. 4-6; pl. 5, fig. 12-14, 20-24; pl. 11, fig. 1-5; text-fig. 2, 3p, r, 4c (with full synonymy)
1986 Pachydiscus (Pachydiscus) gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Kennedy : fig. 8b, c
1987 Pachydiscus (Pachydiscus) gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Kennedy : p.168 pl. 12, fig. 4, 5,; pl. 15, fig. 8-11; pl. 22, fig. 1-5; text-fig. 7a, c
1993 Pachydiscus (Pachydiscus) gollevillensis d'Orbigny. - Ward & Kennedy : p. 35, 37, 38, 39 fig. 29.6, 31.1, 31.5, 32.1-32.3, 33
Was used in synonym list of:
Stratigraphy - relative ages:
upper Maastrichtian: Kennedy (1986)
upper Maastrichtian - lower Maastrichtian: ()

Orbigny,A.D.. (1840):
1840-1842. Paleontologie francaise: Terrains cretaces. 1, Cephalopodes. p. 1-120 (1840),12

d'Orbigny,A. (1850):
Prodrome de Paléontologie. Stratigraphique universelle des animaux mollusques & rayonnés faisant suitre au cours élémentaire de paléontologie et de géologie stratigraphique. , Cours Élémentaire de Paléontologie et de Géologie Stratigraphiques Vol. 2

Orbigny,A.D.. (1850):
Prodrome de Paleontologie stratigraphique universelle des animaux mollusques et rayonnes. Vol. 2 p. 428 pp.

Sharpe,D.. (1853):
1853-1857. Deseription of the fossil remains of Mollusca found in the Chalk of England. I, Cephalopoda. . Palaeontogr. Soc. (Monogr.) p. 68 pp., 27 pis.

Binkhorst,J.T.. (1861):
Monographie des gastropodes et des céphalopodes de la Craie Supérieure du Limburg.
In: Maastricht and Muller Frères Eds: Muquardt, G.. p. 17,83,44

Seunes,J.. (1891):
Contributions à l’étude des Céphalopodes du Crétacé Supérieur de France. Ammonites du Calcaire à Baculites du Cotenin (Suite); II. Ammonites du Campanien de la région sous-Pyrénéenne, Département de Landes . Mémoirs de la Société Géologique de France, Paléontologie Vol. 2(2) p. 8-22

Grossouvre,d.A.. (1894):
Recherches sur la Craie Supérieure, 2, Paléontologie. Les ammonites de la Craie Supérieure, Mémoirs pour Servir à l’Explication de la Carte géologique détaillée de la France (mis-dated 1893).. p. 264

Kossmat,F.. (1897):
The Cretaceous deposits of Pondicherri. . Rec. geol. Surv. India Vol. 30 p. 51-110

Kossmat,F.. (1898):
Untersuchungen über die Südindische Kreideformation. Dritter Theil. . Beiträge zur Paläontologie Österreich-Ungarns und des Orient Vol. 11 p. 89-152

Wisniowski,T.. (1907):
Über die Obersenone flyschfauna von Leszczyny . Beitr. Paläont. Geol. Öst.-Ung. Vol. 30 p. 191-205

Grossouvre,d.A.. (1908):
Description des ammonites du Cretace Superieur du Limbourg Belge et Hollandais et du Hainault . Mem. Mus. r. Hist. nat. Belg Vol. 4 p. 1-39

Kilian,W.. and Reboul,P.. (1909):
Les cephalopodes neocretaces des lies Seymour et Snow Hili. . Wiss. Ergebn. schwed. Südpolarexped. Vol. 3(6) p. 1-75

Nowak,K.. (1913):
Untersuchungen über diecephalopoden der oberen Kreide in Polen. III. Teil. . Ibid p. 335-415

Cottreau,J.. (1922):
Palaeontologie de Madagascar. X.- Fossiles Craetacaes de la Cote Orientale. . Annls. Palaeont Vol. 11 p. 111-192 (1-83)

Spath,L.F.. (1922):
On the Senonian ammonite fauna of Pondoland . Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa Vol. 10 p. 113–148

Boehm,J.. (1927):
Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Senonfauna der Bithynischen Halbinsel . Palaeontographica Vol. 69 p. 187-222

Barrabe,L.. (1929):
Contribution à l'etude stratigraphique et petrographique du pays de Sakalava, Madagascar . Mem. Soc. geol. Fr.Mem. 12(NS, 5) p. 269 pp

Besairie,H.. (1930):
Recherches geoliques à Madagascar.Contribution à l'etude des ressources minerals . Bull. Soc. Hist. nat. Toulouse Vol. 60 p. 345-616

Basse,E.. (1931):
Monographie paleontologique du Cretace de la Province de Maintirano. . Mem. geol. Sen. Min. Madagascar p. 86 pp.

COLLIGNON,M.. (1938):
Ammonites Campaniennes et Maastrichtiennes de I'ouest et du sud de Madagascar. . Annales Geologiques du Service des Mines de Madagascar Vol. 9 p. 55-118

Spath,L.F.. (1940):
On Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Ammonoidea from Western Australia . Jl. R. Soc. West. Aust. Vol. 26 p. 41-57

Mikhailov,N.P.. (1951):
[Upper Cretaceous ammonites from the southern part of european Russia and their importance for zonal stratigraphy (Campanian, Maastrichtian).] [In Russian.] . Trudy Inst. geol. Nauk Mosk.129 (Geol. ser. 50) p. 143 pp.

Naidin,D.P.. and Shimanskij,V.N.. (1959):
[Cephalopoda.] .
In: [Atlas of the Upper Cretaceous fauna of the northern Caucasus and Crimea.] Eds: Moskvina, M.M.. p. 166-220

Young,K.. (1963):
Upper Cretaceous ammonites from the Gulf Coast of the United States . Univ. Tex. Bull. Vol. 6304 p. ix+373 pp.

Tsankov,C.V.. (1964):
[Ammonites from the Maastriehtian near Kladorub village, Belogradehic region, north¬west Bulgaria.] [In Bulgarian.] . Trudove Vurkhu geol. Bulg. Vol. 6 p. 143-168

ATABEKIAN,A.A.. and AKOPIAN,v.T.. (1969):
Late Cretaceous ammonites of the Armenian SSR (Pachydiscidae). . Proceedings of the Armenian Academy of Science, Earth Sciences. [In Georgian]. Vol. 6 p. 3-20

COLLIGNON,M.. (1971):
Atlas des fossiles caracteristiques de Madagascar (Ammonites)(Maestrichtian). Vol. 17 p. 82

Campanian and Maastrichtian ammmonites of the Middle Vistula Valley, Poland: a stratigraphic-paleontological study . Prace Instytutu Geologicznego Vol. 92 p. 1-63

Thomel,G.. (1980):
Ammonites . L'Imprimerie Gimello, Nice p. 1-227

Tsankov,C.V.. (1982):
[The fossils of Bulgaria Va Upper Cretaceous.] [In Russian.] . p. 136 pp.

Martinez,R.. (1982):
Ammonoideos cretacicos del Prepirineo de la Provincia de Lleida . Publnes Geol. Univ, autonoma Barcelona Vol. 17 p. 197

Kennedy,J.W.. (1986):
The Campanian-Maastrichtian ammonite sequence in the environs of Maastricht (Limburg, the Netherlands) . Newsletters on Stratigraphy Vol. 16 p. 149-168

Kennedy,W.J.. (1986):
The ammonite fauna of the type Maastrichtian with a revision of Ammonites colligatus Binkhorst, 1861. . Bulletin de I 'Institut Royal des Seiences Naturelles de Belgique, Seiences de la Terre Vol. 56 p. 151-267

Kennedy,W.J.. (1986):
The ammonite fauna of the Calcaire à Baculites (Upper Maastrichtian) of the Cotentin Peninsula (Manche, France) . Palaeontology Vol. 29(1) p. 25-83

Kennedy,W.J.. (1987):
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