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Species Subbotina patagonica Todd & Kniker 1952



Diagnosis / Definition:
Pearson et al. (2006):
DESCRIPTION. Type of wall: Coarsely cancellate, sacculifer-type wall texture, normal perforate, spinose. Test morphology: Test very low trochospiral, globular, slightly lobulate in outline, chambers globular, embracing; in spiral view 3-3 1/2 globular, embracing chambers in ultimate whorl, increasing rapidly in size, sutures slightly depressed, straight, ultimate chamber large, about 1/2 the test size; in umbilical view 3-3 1/2 globular, embracing chambers, increasing rapidly in size, sutures slightly depressed, straight umbilicus very small, nearly closed, aperture umbilical, a rounded arch, bordered by a thickened rim that may display a lip, ultimate chamber large making up about 1/2 the test; in edge view chambers globular in shape, embracing. Size: Maximum diameter of holotype 0.32 mm, thickness 0.23 mm.
Discussion / Comments:
Pearson et al. (2006):
DISTINGUISHING FEATURES.- Subbotina patagonica is distinguished by its compact, low trochospiral test with 3-3 1/2 rapidly enlarging chambers, its arched, semicirculiar aperture and its coarsely cancellate sacculifer-type wall texture. DISCUSSION.- Blow (l979) regarded Subbotina patagonica as a cold water species (high latitude) that was related to Subbotina angiporoides. Indeed, the coarsely cancellate sacculifer-type wall texture and compact test links a group of subbotinids that has its origin in the Danian species Subbotina cancellata (Blow). Subbotina patagonica has not been widely recorded in stratigraphic studies, so that its geographic range is not well known. Its occurrence in the lower Eocene of the London Clay and in Trinidad suggests a widespread distribution. Bolli (1957) illustrated a morphotype from Zone P4 in the Lizard Springs Formation, Trinidad that he identified as Globigerina linaperta Finlay. This morphotype (USNM P5032), here illustrated in SEM for the first time (Plate 6.15, Figs. 12, 16), has a coarsely cancellate sacculifer-type wall texture and is referable to S. patagonica. Subbotina patagonica has not been widely recorded by workers, although it is possible that references to S. linaperta in the lower Eocene refer to this species. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS.- Subbotina patagonica is derived from S. cancellata (Blow) by an increase in the rate of chamber inflation and, in turn, gives rise to S. linaperta in the early Eocene. GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION.- There are two occurrences so far recorded in high latitudes locations of the southern hemisphere, and in other low-mid latitude locations. STABLE ISOTOPIC PALEOBIOL0GY.- Recorded by Boersma and others (1987) from DSDP Holes 525A and 548A with relatively positive 18O indicating a deep planktonic habitat. This interpretation is supported by the boron isotope data of Pearson and Palmer (1999).
Systematics:

1
 Superregnum Eukaryota
  Regnum Protoctista
   Phylum Ciliophora
    Subphylum Postciliodesmatophora
     Ordo Globigerinida
      Superfamilia Globigerinaceae
       Superfamilia Nonionacea
        Familia Eoglobigerinidae
         Familia Globigerinidae
          Genus Subbotina
           Species Subbotina patagonica

19
  Ordo Foraminiferida
   Superfamilia Globigerinaceae
    Familia Eoglobigerinidae
     Familia Globigerinidae
      Genus Subbotina
       Species Subbotina patagonica

35
  Ordo Foraminiferida
   Superfamilia Globigerinaceae
    Familia Globigerinidae
     Genus Subbotina
      Species Subbotina patagonica
Synonym list:
Berggren & Norris (1997):
1952 Globigerina patagonica Todd & Kniker. - Todd & Kniker : p. 26 pl. 32, figs. 32a-c (lower Eocene, Agua Fresca Shale, Otway Sound, Magellanes Province, Chile; given as upper Eocene)
p 1953 Globigerina eocaenica var. eocaenica Terquem. - Subbotina (non Terquem, 1882) : p. 80, 81 pl. 11, figs. 8a-c (Zone of compressed Globorotalia, Foraminiferal layer, Abazin Fm., Kuban River section, N Caucasus; figs. 9a-c (Zone of conical globorotaliids, Foraminiferal Layer, F1, Khieu River section, Nal'chik, N Caucasus; non pl. 11, figs. l0a-llc).
1953 Globigerina triloculinoides Plummer. - Subbotina (non Plummer, 1926) : p.82, 83 pl. 11, figs. 15a-c (Zone of conical globorotaliids, Foraminiferal Layer, Green Series, Kuban River section, N Caucasusu).
1956 Globigerina compressaeformis Khalilov. - Khalilov : p. 239 pl. 2, figs. la-c (holotype no. 247, samples 30 (1946), lower Eocene, Akhchakuima, NE foothills Malyi Caucasusu, Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, Azerbaizhan)
? 1956 Globigerina pileata Khalilov. - Khalilov : p. 239 pl. 2, figs. 3a-c (holoype no. 250, saample 14 (146), "middle Eocene", Akchakuima, NE foothills of Malyi Caucasusu, Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, Azerbaizhan).
1957 Globigerina boweri Bolli. - Bolli : p. 163 pl. 36, figs. 2a,b (paratype from Hantkenina aragonensis Zone, Navet Fm., Trinidad; non holotype, pl. 36, figs. la-c).
1962 Globigerina yeguaensis Weinzierl & Applin. - Berggren (non Weinzierl & Applin, 1929) : p. 73-83 pl. 2, figs. la-4c; pl. 3, figs. la-3c; pl. 4, figs. la-2c; pl. 8, figs. la-5c; text fig. 11 (pl. 2, figs.la-2c; pl. 3, figs. la-3c; pl. 4, figs. 4a-c; pl. 8, figs. la-3c; 5a-c; text-fig. 11- all from Zone NP12 (=Zone P7/8); Rosnaes Clay Fm., R0gle Klint, Denmark; pl. 2, figs. 3a-4c; pl. 8, fig. 4: from lower Eocene "Tarras" at Katharinenhof, Fehmarn, NW Germany; pl. 4, figs. la-2c: lower Eocene 3 at Hollbecker Berg, NW Germany).
1970 Globigerina compressaeformis Khalilov. - Shutskaya : p. 97 pl. 5, figs. la-c (Gt. subbotinae Zone, Khieu River section, Nal'chik, N Caucasus)
1970 Globigerina compressaeformis Khalilov. - Shutskaya : p. 118-120, 186 pl. 6, figs. 6a-c (Gt aequa Zone, Bakhchisarayan Stage, Bel'bek River section, Bakhichisaray region, SW Crimea); p. 200, pl. 13, figs. 3a-c (Gt. subbotinae Zone, Bakhchisarayan Stage, Kacha and Churukh-Su Rivers, Bakhchisaray region, SW Crimea); p. 238, pl. 32, figs. 2a-c (Gt. aequa Zone, Middle Danatin Subgroup, Bakhchisarayan Stage, Malyi Balkhan Ridge, W Turkmenia); p. 254, pl. 40, figs. 3a-c (upper part of Gt. subbotinae Zone, Khieu River section, Nal'chik, N Caucasus).
1970 Globigerina hevensis Shutskaya. - Shutskaya : p. 88 pl. 2, figs. 4a-c (upper part of Gt. subbotinae Zone, Khieu River section, Nal'chik, N Caucasus).
1970 Globigerina hevensis Shutskaya. - Shutskaya : p. 118-120,200 pl. 13, figs, la-c (Gt. subbotinae Zone, Bakhchisarayan Stage, Kacha and Churukh-Su Rivers, Bakhchisaray region, SW Crimea).
1970 Globigerina rotundaenana Shutskaya. - Shutskaya : p. 93 pl. 2, figs. la-c (Gt. aequa Zone, Middle Danatin Subgroup, Malyi Balkhan Ridge, W Turkmenia).
1970 Globigerina rotundaenana Shutskaya. - Shutskaya : p. 118-120,232 pl. 29, figs. 2a-c (Gt. aequa Zone, Bakhchisarayan Stage, Tarkhankut Peninsula, Crimea); p. 238, pl. 22, figs. 4a-c (Gt. aequa Zone, Bakchisarayan Stage, Middle Danatin Subgroup, Malyi Balkhan Ridge, W Turkmenia); p. 240, pl. 33, figs. 6a-c (holotype refigured);
1970 Globigerina elongata d'Orbigny. - Shutskaya : p. 100 pl. 5, figs. 3a-c (lower part of Gt. subbotinae Zone, midddle Danatin Subgroup, Malyi Balkhan Ridge, W Turkmenia).
1970 Globigerina contorta Shutskaya. - Shutskaya : p. 101 pl. 5, figs. 2a-c (Gt. subbotinae Zone, Khieu River section; Nal'chik, N Caucasus).
1970 Globigerina contorta Shutskaya. - Shutskaya : p. 118-120, 246 pl. 36, figs. l0a-c (lower part of Gt. subbotinae Zone, middle Danatin Subgroup, Bakhchisrayan Stage, Malyi Balkhan Ridge, W Turkmenia; given as G. ex gr. contorta).
1970 Globigerina aff. contorta Shutskaya. - Shutskaya : p. 101 pl. 5, figs. 4a-c (upper part of Gt. subbotinae Zone, Khieu River section, Nal'chik, N Caucasus.-Shutskaya 1970b, p. 254, pl. 40, figs. l0a-c (upper part of Gt. subbotinae Zone, Khieu River section, Nal'chik, N Caucasus).
1970 Globigerina sp.1 Obregon. - Shutskaya : p. 102, 103 pl. 5, figs. 5a-c (upper part of Gt. subbotinae Zone, Middle Danatin Subgroup, Malyi Balkhan Ridge, W Turkmenia).
1970 Globigerina sp.1 Obregon. - Shutskaya : p. 118-120, 250 pl. 38, figs. 6a-c (upper part of Gt. subbotinae Zone, Middle Danatin Subgroup, Malyi Balkhan Ridge, W Turkmenia).
1970 Globigerina sp.2 Shutskaya. - Shutskaya : p. 118-120, 246 pl. 36, figs. 9a-c (lower part of Gt. subbotinae Zone, Bakhchisarayan Stage, Middle Danatin Subgroup, Malyi Balkhan Ridge, W Turkmenia); p. 254, pl. 40, figs. 4a-c (upper part of Gt. subbotinae Zone, Bakhchisarayan Stage, Khieu River section, N Caucasus).
1970 Globigerina ex gr. eocaenica Terquem. - Shutskaya (non Terquem, 1882) : p. 248 pl. 37, figs. 7a-c (lower part of Gt. subbotinae Zone, Bakhchisarayan Stage, Middle Danatin Subgroup, Malyi Balkhan Ridge, W Turkmenia).
1979 Subbotina ? eocaenica Terquem. - Blow : p. 1260-1262 pl. 142, figs. 4,5 (Zone P8b of Blow; DSDP 3/20C/5/5:72-74cm; S Atlantic); pl. 153, fig. 9 (Zone P9; piston-core, KANE 9, core 42,163cms; Echo Seamount, north of Cape Verde Islands, N Atlantic); pl. 160, fig. 1 (Zone P10; piston-core, KANE 9, core 42, 95cms; Echo Seamount, north of Cape Verde Islands, N Atlantic); pl. 158, fig. 5 (Zone P10; piston-core, KANE 9, core 42,95cms; Echo Seamount, north of Cape Verde Islands, N Atlantic); given as Subbotina sp. ex interc Subbotina eocaenica ? (Terquem) and S. frontosa frontosa (Subbotina)).
1981 Globigerina patagonica Todd & Kniker. - Murray et al. : p. 260 pl. 8.10, figs. 6-8, 10-12 (lower Eocene-Ypresian-London Clay Fm., Leca Works, Ongar Essex, S England)
1989 Globigerina patagonica Todd & Kniker. - King : p. 530 pl. 10.10, figs. 6-8,10-12 (refiguration of specimens figured in MURRAY et al. 1983).
1990 Subbotina eocaenica Terquem. - Stott & Kennett : p. 559 pl. 3, fig. 14 sensu BLOW (Zone AP|12, ODP 113/689B/15H/7: 35-39cm ; Maude Rise, Weddell Sea, Antarctic Ocean).
1991 Subbotina patagonica Todd & Kniker. - Huber : p. 441 pl. 4, figs. 16, 17 (Zone AP7, ODP 119/738C/3R/1: 59-64cm; 206.79 mbsf; Kerguelen Plateau, S Indian Ocean)
1992 Subbotina patagonica Todd & Kniker. - Berggren : p. 563 pl. 2, fig. 16 (Zone P9, ODP 120/748C/10R/1: 17-19cm; Kerguelen Plateau, S Indian Ocean).
1997 Subbotina patagonica Todd & Kniker. - Berggren & Norris : p.81 Plate 5 Figure 10
Pearson et al. (2006):
1952 Subbotina patagonica Todd & Kniker. - Todd & Kniker : p.26 pl. 4; fig. 32a-c [lower Eocene, Agua Fresca Shale, Magellanes Province, southernmost Chile]
1957 Globigerina linaperta Finlay. - Bolli : p.70 pl. 15; fig. 15-17 [upper Paleocene Zone P4, lower Lizard Springs Fm., Trinidad]; [Not Finlay, 1939]
p 1989 Subbotina patagonica Todd & Kniker. - Murray et al. : p.530 pl. 10.10; fig. 10-12 (partim; not pl. 10.10, fig. 6-8); [lower Eocene, London Clay Fm., Essex, UK]
1991 Subbotina patagonica Todd & Kniker. - Huber : p.441 pl. 4; fig. 16, 17 [lower Eocene Zone AE314, ODP Hole 738C, Kerguelen Plateau, southern Indian Ocean]
2006 Subbotina patagonica Todd & Kniker. - Pearson et al. : p.147 pl. 15, fig. 1-16 (Pl. 6.15, Figs. 1-3,5-7,9-11: new SEMS of holotype and paratypes of Globigerina patagonica Todd and Kniker)
Was used in synonym list of:
Subbotina roesnaesensis Olsson & Berggren 2006
Specimen:
Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., Inventory number: USNM 64483
References:

Todd,R. and Kniker,H.T. (1952):
An Eocene foraminiferal fauna from the Agua Fresca shale of Magallanes Province, southernmost Chile . Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication Vol. 1 p. 1-28

Subbotina,N.N. (1953):
Iskopaemye foraminifery SSSR (Globigerinidy, Khantkenininidy i Globorotaliidy) . Trudy Vsesoyznogo Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Geologo-razvedochnogo Instituta (VNIGRI) Vol. 76 p. 296

Khalilov,D.M. (1956):
O pelagicheskoy faune foraminifer Paleogenovykh otlozheniy Azerbaydzhana . Trudy Instituta Geologii, Akademiya Nauk Azerbaydzhanskoy SSR Vol. 17

Bolli,H.M. (1957):
Planktonic Foraminifera from the Eocene Navet and San Fernando formations of Trinidad, B.W.I. . Bull. U.S. natl. Mus. Vol. 215 p. 155-172

Berggren,W.A. (1962):
Some Planktonic Foraminifera from the Maestrichtian and Type Danian Stages of Southern Scandinavia . Stockholm Contributions in Geology Vol. 9(1)

Shutskaya,E.K. (1970):
Stratigrafiya, foraminifery i paleogeografiya nizhnego paleogena Kryma, predkavkaz'ya i zapadnoi chadsti srednei azii. , Vsesoyuznyi naucho-issledovadetel'skii geologo-razvedochniyi neftyanoi institut (VNIGRI) Vol. 70

Shutskaya,E.K. (1970):
Morfologicheskie grupirovki vidov rodov Globigerina i Acarinina v nizhnei chasti paleogena Kryma, Predkavkazya i zapada Srednei Azii i ipisanie vidov.
In: Stratigrafiya i paleontologiya Mezozoiskikh i Paleogenovykh otlozhenii Srednei Azii. Vsesoyuznyi Naucho-Issledovatel'skii Geologorazvedochnyi Nefyanoi Institut (VNIGNI), Trudy Vol. 69 Eds: Shutskaya, E.K. p. 79-134

Blow,W.H. (1979):
The Cainozoic Globigerinida. 3 Vols p. 1413 pp

Murray,J.W.; Curry,D.; Haynes,J.R. and King,C. (1981):
Palaeogene.
In: Stratigraphical Atlas of Fossil Foraminifera Eds: Jenkins, D.G.Murray, J.W. p. 228-267

Murray,J.W.; Curry,D.; Haynes,J.R. and King,C. (1989):
Paleogene.
In: Stratigraphical Atlas of Fossil Foraminifera Eds: Jenkins, D.G.Murray, J.W. p. 490-536

King,C. (1989):
Cenozoic of the North Sea.
In: Stratigraphical Atlas of Fossil Foraminifera, 2nd edition Eds: Jenkins, D.G.Murray, J.W. p. 418-489

Stott,L.D. and Kennett,J.P. (1990):
Antarctic Paleogene planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy: ODP Leg 113, Sites 689 and 690.
In: Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program Vol. 113 p. 549-569

Huber,B.T. (1991):
Paleogene and early Neogene planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy of Sites 738 and 744, Kerguelen Plateau (southern Indian Ocean).
In: Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results Vol. 119 Eds: Leckie, R.M.Sigurdsson, H.Acton, G.D.Draper, G. p. 427-449

Berggren,W.A. (1992):
Paleogene Planktonic Foraminifera Magnetobiostratigraphy of the Southern Kerguelen Plateau (Sites 747-749).
In: Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results Vol. 120

Berggren,W.A. and Norris,R.D. (1997):
Biostratigraphy, phylogeny and systematics of Paleocene trochospiral planktic foraminifera . Micropaleontology Vol. 43(suppl. 1) p. 1-116

Pearson,P.N.; Olsson,R.K.; Hemleben,C.; Huber,B.T. and Berggren,W.A. (2006):
Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera. p. 1-513

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