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Pseudophyllites indra Forbes 1846 from: Ifrim, C..Stinnesbeck, W..López-Oliva, J.G.. (2004): Maastrichtian cephalopods from Cerralvo, north-eastern Mexico . Palaeontology Vol. 47(6) p. 1575–1627
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Species Pseudophyllites indra Forbes 1846

[1]
[2]
[1] Text-fig. 3H Ifrim et al. (2004) [2] Text-fig. 5a-b Ifrim et al. (2004)

Diagnosis / Definition:
Cobban & Kennedy (1995):
DESCRIPTION.- YPM 32981 is mold of parts of two-thirds of whorl that has whorl breadth to height ratio of 0.89; maximum preserved whorl height 26 mm. Umbilicus small, deep, with flattened, outward inclined umbilical wall. Umbilical shoulder abruptly rounded, flanks flattened, ventrolateral shoulders and venter broadly rounded. USNM 463100 is much larger wholly septate fragment that has maximum preserved whorl height of 53 mm. Whorl breadth to height ratio is 1.1, with greatest breadth well below midflank. Umbilicus small, umbilical wall flat and outward-inclined, umbilical shoulder sharply defined, inner flanks flattened and convergent, venter broadly rounded. YPM 32982 is single chamber that has maximum preserved whorl height of 52 mm and whorl breadth to height ratio of 0.94. All specimens show a massive septa1 lobe. Suture deeply and intricately incised, as typical for genus, with lanceolate external saddle.
Ifrim et al. (2004):
Description: The test is involute and expands rapidly. Whorl seetion is rounded to slightly compressed. The umbilicus (UiD is c. 0·21) is small and deep, and grades into an outward sloping wall. The umbilical shoulder is abruptly rounded, flanks are initially rather flattened and convergent, and the venter is rounded. Internal moulds are smooth and no ornament is preserved on our Cerralvo specimens. The suture line is highly subdivided with a lanceolate ventral saddle, trifid first lateral saddle (EIL) and smaller bifid second lateral saddle (LlU). The bifid lateral lobe (L) is deeply incised and almost as deep as the ventral lobe. The suturallobe is slightly retracted with a large bifid first umbilical saddle. The massive septallobe of the internal suture line is accompanied by two lateral saddles on each side. Saddle terminations are typically subphylloid.
Ward & Kennedy (1993):
Description. - Biscay specimens include juveniles and larger individuals up to 105 mm in diameter. Coiling involute, umbilicus tiny in juveniles, increasing to 18 percent of diameter in largest specimen. Whorls massive and rapidly expanding; umbilical wall slopes outwards to broadly rounded umbilical shoulder, inner flanks flattened, ventrolateral shoulders and venter broadly rounded. Juveniles smooth, apart from feeble growth lines and striae that are feebly flexuous and prorsiradiate on flanks, flexing forwards and convex on ventrolateral shoulder and crossing venter in shallow concavity. Ornament strengthens markedly in later growth with two orders developed. Dense crowded lirae rectiradiate on umbilical wall, swinging forwards and prorsiradiate on umbilical shoulder and inner flanks, convex on ventrolateral shoulder and swept back into shallow ventral concavity. Lirae and striae weak on flanks, but strengthen markedly over venter. Weak, narrow folds on flank and venter parallel growth lines and lirae, best developed over venter. Some specimens show massive septal lobe.
Discussion / Comments:
Cobban & Kennedy (1995):
TYPE.- Lectotype, BMNH C5 1068, the original of Forbes, 1846, plate 11, figures 7a, b, from the Valudavur Formation of Pondichem, South India. Designated by Kennedy and Klinger, 1977, page 182. MATERIAL.- Three specimens, YPM 3298 1, 32982, and USNM 463 100. Occurrence.- Prairie Bluff Chalk at locality 21 (see Appendix). The Yale specimens are from near Starkville, Oktibbeha County, Mississippi. Elsewhere in the eastern United States, P. indra occurs as a rarity in the upper Campanian Nacatoch Sand in northeast Texas , in the lower Maastrichtian Nostoceras alternatum zone in the Nacatoch Sand in southwest Arkansas, and in the upper Campanian Nostoceras hyatti zone fauna at the base of the Mount Laurel Sand at Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey. Elsewhere the species may appear in the upper Santonian, but is mostly known from the lower Campanian to upper Maastrichtian. There are records from South India, Zululand and Pondoland (South Africa), Madagascar, western Australia, Japan, Sakhalin, Alaska, British Columbia, California, Brazil, Chile, northern Ireland, Poland, Austria and southwest France.
Ifrim et al. (2004):
Type: Lectotype BMNH C51068 is the original of Forbes (1846, pl. 11, fig. 7a, b) as designated by Kennedy and Klinger (1977). Remarks: The lanceolate extern al saddle and the flat umbilical wall clearly separate P. indra from other species of the genus Pseudophyllites (Henderson and McNamara 1985). Occurrence: Pseudophyllites indra ranges from the Upper Santonian (Madagascar, Collignon 1971; South Africa,jide Kennedy and Klinger 1977) to the Upper Maastrichtian A. mayaroensis Zone (e.g. Ward and Kennedy 1993). The species occurs world-wide in lower and middle latitudes (Tethys). It is known to occur in Japan (Nagao and Saito 1934), Poland (Blaszkiewicz 1980), France and Spain (Ward and Kennedy 1993), the southern and eastern USA (e.g. Cobban and Kennedy 1991b, 1995), Austria (Kennedy and Summesberger 1986), southern India (Kennedy and Henderson 1992b), western Australia (Henderson and McNamara 1985), Alaska (Jones 1963), Chile (Stinnesbeck 1986), and other locations (see Ward and Kennedy 1993). In western Australia, Chile and the Biscay region of Spain and France, Pseudophyllites indra ranges into the Upper Maastrichtian A. mayaroensis Zone (Henderson and McNamara 1985; Stinnesbeck 1986; Ward and Kennedy 1993).
Ward & Kennedy (1993):
Type. - Lectotype is BMNH C5 1068 (Figure 2l), designated by Kennedy and Klinger, 1977b, p. 182; paralectotypes are BMNH C5 1069-5 1073, C22677-22678, all from the Valudavur Formation of Pondicheny, south India. Discussion.- The lectotype is shown in Figure 2 1. Given the difference in preservation when compared with the Biscay material, the similarities are striking. Pseudophyllites loryi (Kilian and Reboul, 1909) (p. 18, Pl. 1, figs. 4, 5; see Macellari, 1986, p. 16, figs. 1 1.1-1 1.10, 13), of which P. latus (Marshall, 1926) (p. 149, P1. 20, fig. 6, Pl. 32, figs. 1, 2; see also Henderson and McNamara, 1985, p. 50, Pl. 3, figs. 1-3, 6-8, text-fig. 5b, c), P. wnangaroaensis Marshall, 1926 (p. 153, Pl. 20, fig. 2, Pl. 2 1, fig. 11, Pl. 32, figs. 5, 6), P. peregrinus Spath, 1953 (p. 7, Pl. 1, figs. 6-9) and P. skoui Birkelund, 1965 (p. 37, Pl. 3, figs. 2-6, text-figs. 26-33) are junior synonyms, has broader whorls, less rapidly increasing whorl height and a steeper umbilical wall. Pseudophyllites teres (Van Hoepen, 1920) (p. 144, Pl. 25, figs. 1, 2) has compressed whorls with subparallel sides and a subvertical umbilical wall. Kennedy (1 986a, p. 2 1) discussed a number of recently recognized synonyms of P. indra, one of which is Gaudryceras colloti de Grossouvre, 1894 (p. 229, Pl. 37, fig. 8; see Figure 22), a species described from the Biscay region, in the upper Maastrichtian Calcaire a Stegaster between Gan and Rebenacq (Pyrenees-Atlantiques), France. Occurrence. - In the Biscay sections the taxon ranges from the middle of Member I (lower Maastrichtian) to the top of Member V (upper Maastrichtian). It is the most commonly found ammonite in the highest meter of Cretaceous strata at Bidart. France. Elsewhere, the species is known from the upper Maastrichtian of south India, upper Santonian to Maastrichtian of Zululand (South Africa), Santonian to Campanian of Pondoland (South Africa), lower Campanian to Maastrichtian of Madagascar, upper Maastrichtian of western Australia, Campanian to Maastrichtian of Japan, Sakhalien, Alaska, British Columbia, California, New Jersey, and the Gulf Coast region of the USA, and, possibly, Brazil. It occurs in the upper Campanian of Charente, Aquitaine, France, and in the Campanian or Maastrichtian of Tercis, Landes, France, in the lower Maastrichtian of Neuberg, Steiermark, Austria, and the upper Campanian of Northern Ireland, and the Vistula Valley, Poland.
Synonym list:
Cobban & Kennedy (1995):
1846 Ammonites indra Forbes. - Forbes : p.105 pl. 11; fig. 7
1846 Ammonites Garuda Forbes. - Forbes : p.102 pl. 7; fig. 1
1977 Pseudophyllites indra Forbes. - Kennedy & KLINGER : p.182 fig. 19a-f, 20-22 [with full synonymy]
1982 Pseudophyllites indra Forbes. - Case : fig. 12: 64
1985 Pseudophyllites indra Forbes. - Henderson & McNamara : p.50 pl. 2, fig. 7, 8; pl. 3, fig. 4, 5; text-fig. 5a, d
1986 Pseudophyllites indra Forbes. - Stinnesbeck : p.199 pl. 8; fig. 4
1986 Pseudophyllites indra Forbes. - Kennedy : p.19 pl. 1, fig. 1-5; text-fig. 5a, 6a-e [with additional synonymy]
1986 Pseudophyllites indra Forbes. - Kennedy & Summesberger : p.187 pl. 1, fig. 1, 8; pl. 3; fig. 5; text-fig. 4 [with additional synonymy]
1989 Pseudophyllites Kossmat. - Kennedy : fig. 17b
1991 Pseudophyllites indra Forbes. - Haggart : pl. 5; fig. 4
1991 Pseudophyllites indra Forbes. - Cobban & Kennedy : E2 pl. 1; fig. 1-5
1992 Pseudophyllites indra Forbes. - Kennedy & Henderson : p.398 pl. 3, fig. 7-9, 13-27; pl. 4, fig. 1-3 [with full synonymy]
1992 Pseudophyllites indra Forbes. - Shigeta : p.1158 fig. 1-4
1993 Pseudophyllites indra Forbes. - Ward & Kennedy : p.22 fig. 17.8, 18.9, 18.10, 19.7, 19.9, 19.13, 21.1, 21.2, 22.1, 22.2, 27.6
1995 Pseudophyllites indra Forbes. - Cobban & Kennedy : p.5 fig. 2.1-2.4, 2.10
Ifrim et al. (2004):
1846 Ammonites indra Forbes. - Forbes : p.105 pl. 11, fig. 7
1895 Pseudophyllites indra Forbes. - Kossmat : p.137 pl. 16, figs. 6-9; pl. 17, figs. 6-7; pl. 18, fig. 3
1963 Pseudophyllites indra Forbes. - JONES : p.25 pl. 7, figs. 6-7; pl. 8; pl. 29, figs. 7-12; text-fig. 10
1971 Pseudophyllites indra Forbes. - COLLIGNON : 2, 81 pl. 639, fig. 2355; pl. 640, fig. 2363; pl. 649, fig. 2355
1977 Pseudophyllites indra Forbes. - Kennedy & KLINGER : 182-187 text-figs. 19-22 (with additional synonymy)
1985 Pseudophyllites indra Forbes. - Henderson & McNamara : p.50 pl. 2, figs. 7-8; pl. 3, figs. 4-5; text-fig. 5a-d
1986 Pseudophyllites indra Forbes. - Stinnesbeck : p.199 pl. 8, fig. 4
1986 Pseudophyllites indra Forbes. - Kennedy : p.19 pl. 1, figs. 1-5; text-figs. 4e, 5a, 6a-e (with additional synonymy)
1991 Pseudophyllites indra Forbes. - Cobban & Kennedy : E2 pl. 1, figs. 1-5
1992 Pseudophyllites indra Forbes. - Kennedy & Henderson : p.398 pl. 3, figs. 7-9, 13-27; pl. 4, figs. 1-3
1993 Pseudophyllites indra Forbes. - Ward & Kennedy : p.22 text-figs. 17.8, 18.9-10, 19.7, 19.9, 19.13, 21.1-2, 22.1-2, 27.6
1993 Pseudophyllites indra Forbes. - Kennedy & Hancock : p.577 pl. 1, figs. 4, 7
1995 Pseudophyllites indra Forbes. - Cobban & Kennedy : p.4 figs. 2.1-2.4, 2.10 (with additional synonymy)
2004 Pseudophyllites indra Forbes. - Ifrim et al. : 7, 14 text-figs. 3h, 5a-b
Ward & Kennedy (1993):
1846 Ammonites indra Forbes. - Forbes : p.105 pl. 11; fig. 7
1977 Pseudophyllites indra Forbes. - Kennedy & KLINGER : p.182 fig. 19a-f, 20-22 (with full synonymy)
1986 Pseudophyllites indra Forbes. - Kennedy : p.19 pl. 1, fig. 1-5; text-fig. 4e, 5a, 6a-e (with additional synonymy)
1986 Pseudophyllites cf. indra Forbes. - Kennedy & Summesberger : p.187 pl. 1, fig. 1, 8; pl. 3, fig. 5; text-fig. 4 (with additional synonymy)
1993 Pseudophyllites indra Forbes. - Ward & Kennedy : p. 18, 19, 20, 23, 2 fig. 17.8, 18.9, 18.10, 19.7, 19.9, 19.13, 21.1, 21.2, 22.2, 27.6
Was used in synonym list of:
Stratigraphy - relative ages:
upper Maastrichtian - upper Santonian: Ifrim et al. (2004)
upper Maastrichtian - lower Maastrichtian: Ward & Kennedy (1993)
upper Maastrichtian - lower Campanian: Cobban & Kennedy (1995)
References:

Forbes,E.. (1846):
Report on the Cretaceous fossil invertebrates from southern India, collected by Mr. Kaye and Mr. Cunliffe . Transactions of the Geological Society of London Vol. 2(7) p. 97–174

Kossmat,F.. (1895):
Untersuchungen über die Südindische Kreideformation. Erster Theil . Beiträge zur Paläontologie Österreich-Ungarns und des Orient Vol. 9 p. 97-203

JONES,D.L.. (1963):
Upper Cretaceous (Campanian and Maastrichtian) ammonites from southern Alaska . United States Geological Survey Professional Paper Vol. 432 p. 1-53

COLLIGNON,M.. (1971):
Atlas des fossiles caracteristiques de Madagascar (Ammonites)(Maestrichtian). Vol. 17 p. 82

Kennedy,W.J.. and KLINGER,H.C.. (1977):
Cretaceous faunas from Zululand and Natal, South Africa. The ammonite family Tetragonitidae Hyatt, 1900 . Annals of the South African Museum Vol. 73 p. 149-197

Case,G.R.. (1982):
A Pictorial Guide to Fossils. p. 1-514

Henderson,R.A.. and McNamara,K.J.. (1985):
Maastrichtian non-heteromorph ammonites from the Miria Formation, Western Australia . Palaeontology Vol. 28 p. 35-88

Stinnesbeck,W.. (1986):
Zu den faunistischen und palökologischen Verhältnissen in der Quriquina Formation (Maastrichtium)Zentral-Chiles . Palaeontographica A194((4-6)) p. 99-237

Kennedy,W.J.. and Summesberger,H.. (1986):
Lower Maastrichtian ammonites from Neuberg, Steirmark, Austria: . Beiträge zur Paläontologie von Österreich Vol. 12 p. 181–242

Kennedy,W.J.. (1986):
Campanian and Maastrichtian ammonites from northern Aquitaine, France . Palaeontological Association of London Special Papers in Palaeontology Vol. 36 p. 145

Kennedy,W.J.. (1989):
Thoughts on the evolution and extinction of Cretaceous ammonites . Procedings of the Geologists Association Vol. 100 p. 251-279

Cobban,W.A.. and Kennedy,W.J.. (1991):
Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) ammonites from the Nostoceras alternatum zone in southwestern Arkansas . United States Geological Survey, Bulletin Vol. 1985 p. E1-E6

Haggart,J.W.. (1991):
Biostratigraphy of the Upper Cretaceous Nanaimo Group, Gulf Islands, British Columbia.
In: A Field Guide to the Paleontology of Southwestern Canada Eds: Smith, P.L. p. 223-255

Kennedy,W.J.. and Henderson,R.A.. (1992):
Non-heteromorph ammonites from the Upper Maastrichtian of Pondicherry, south India . Palaeontology Vol. 35 p. 381-442

Kennedy,W.J.. and Henderson,R.A.. (1992):
Maastrichtian ammonites (Phylloceratina, Lytoceratina, Ammonitina) from Pondicheny, South India . Palaeontology Vol. 35 p. 381-442

Shigeta,Y.. (1992):
A record of Pseudophyllites indra (Lytoceratina, Tetragonitidae) from the Upper Cretaceous of Hokkaido and Sakhalin . Transactions and Proceedings of the Palaeontological Society of Japan, New Series Vol. 166 p. 1157-1163

Kennedy,W.J.. and Hancock,J.M.. (1993):
Upper Maastrichtian ammonites from the Marnes de Nay between Gan and Rebenacq (Pyrenees-Atlantiques), France . Geobios Vol. 26 p. 575-594

Ward,P.D.. and Kennedy,W.J.. (1993):
Maastrichtian Ammonites from the Biscay Region (France, Spain) . Memoir (The Paleontological Society), Journal of Paleontology34 (Supplement to Vol. 67)(5) p. 1-58

Ward,P.D.. and Kennedy,W.J.. (1993):
Maastrichtian ammonites from the Biscay Region . Journal of Paleontology Vol. 67(5 II) p. 1-58

Cobban,W.A.. and Kennedy,W.J.. (1995):
Maastrichtian ammonites chiefly from the Prairie Bluff Chalk in Alabama and Mississippi . Journal of Paleontology Vol. 69(5) p. 1-40

Ifrim,C..; Stinnesbeck,W.. and López-Oliva,J.G.. (2004):
Maastrichtian cephalopods from Cerralvo, north-eastern Mexico . Palaeontology Vol. 47(6) p. 1575–1627

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